Javascript window object global variables

Global variables are properties of the window object. js it is global , for other  Local JavaScript Variables. In HTML, the global scope is the window object: All global variables belong to the window object. It would be a breaking Each execution context has an associated VariableObject. acrobatusers. document. ts file,  Dec 3, 2018 Failure to deal with javascript memory leaks can wreak havoc on your app's performance . If we have a frameset with two frames ("left" and "right"), and our code in the "left" frame wants to access a global variable of the "right" frame, the procedure is: That runs contrary to the concept of encapsulation. Global variables are useful ($ aka jQuery is a global variable), but the fewer you have, the better. Local variables are faster to resolve than the global variables, but this is on a huge  Jan 10, 2010 All because it's not possible to delete variables in Javascript. Unless Unlike simple global variables, object literals often also take into account tests for the existence of a MyApplication ){ MyApplication = {} }; // Option 3: window. In this example, we establish two global variables: greeting and greet . However, variables declared with the var, const or let keyword cannot be deleted using the delete operator. Window object is a top-level object in Client-Side JavaScript. @johnjbarton pointed out that that is because all element IDs are global variables. Note: There is no public standard that applies to the Window object, but all major browsers support it. Global objects are predefined objects that are always instantiated and cannot be created using the “new” operator. He has explained with a help of an array variable. counter == counter); Realizing that global variables live under your window object should help you understand why you can access a global variable from anywhere in your document. What if we want to access the global variable instead of local one here. For example, Name and name are two different variables. Global namespace pollution in JavaScript 56. In our example, counter and window. All global variables are window object properties, and all global functions are its methods. counter point to exactly the same thing: alert (window. a; //hello Some people like to preface them with a 'g' for global. For example, to check the existence of JavaScript object. use node. As this page says, your new variable becomes part of the window object. JavaScript window object is top level of JavaScript Object hierarchy which represents browser window interface which contains objects like documents, history etc. after one standard, Node. Namespaces in JavaScript 57. All global JavaScript objects, functions, and variables automatically become members of the window object. Even the document object (of the HTML DOM) is a property of the window object: In a tabbed browser, each tab is represented by its own Window object; the global window seen by JavaScript code running within a given tab always represents the tab in which the code is running. So, what’s correct way to declare global variable in javascript then? Correct way to declare global variable in JavaScript. It acts as a container for an entire hierarchy of 53. JavaScript variable names are case-sensitive. variable syntax. JavaScript Object Literals can have properties that are also objects, and those objects have their own context. near the Window and you'll see a list of global JavaScript Variables. The examples below demonstrate various techniques for sharing data between different scripting contexts within the Acrobat Scripting environment using the . Strings are written inside double or single quotes. The language has the somewhat unusual feature of making the environment for global variables accessible as an object, the so-called global object. www. Functions can be adopted for various contexts and scope can be encapsulated and preserved. d. com. In the browser, the global object is the same as the window object but in other environments (e. js-style require s in their browser-deployed javascript. this keyword in JavaScript represents an object containing current code. window. Objects have methods and/or subordinate properties that you refer to by using the dot operator. Everything that you declare in JavaScript is available to every other script on the page, unless you wrap the declaration in a JavaScript variables & identifiers - Tutorial to learn JavaScript variables and identifiers in simple, easy and step by step way with syntax, examples and notes. JavaScript is the wild west: Browsers and libraries may define different things in the global scope, so it's easy to step on something's toes - or have your own toes stepped on, if some library accidentally overwrites your global variables. attaches itself to the global window object—something let and const don't do. Variable scope has always been tricky in JavaScript, particularly when . keys(iframe. The last two examples may seem like overkill, but I wanted to point out that just when you start to get a handle on the concept of context in JavaScript object literals, you must realize that there is a bit more to consider. Learn more about Teams In JavaScript variables were declared using the var keyword up until ECMAScript 6 (ES6). All global variables belong to the window object. All the global variables are attached to window object and thus we can access the global variable name as shown in example below. everything under the window object in the JavaScript DOM). window window. write is same as document. In HTML, the global scope is the window object. As a side note, `this` was used to refer to global object (`window` in browser)  As you might know, in browser JavaScript we have a window object. If no object is currently available, then ‘this’ represents the global object. It can be used with dot notation on a window object (that is, window. node. This is because the window object is the starting point of all the code we write. That is the reason why you can access window from within any function :-) Whether it's the widget or a "global" that holds the array, one of these will need to be "global. js is called “global”. location object. wants to access a global variable of the "right" frame, the  May 18, 2013 If you don't care about variable scoping in JavaScript, you may face some unpleasant troubles. JavaScript global variable Like other programming languages, JavaScript also has local and global variables. Covers topics like initializing the variables, variable scope - local and global, programs explaining the use of these variables. When starting a new React project its easy to imagine not using anything from the window object; it feels old-timey and makes your code looks terrible. JavaScript has a feature called Scope. The window object is definitely useful, but we probably want to avoid putting our variables in it JavaScript Data Types. This is an issue with IE’s notorious broken interpreter. Setup a private space for you and your coworkers to ask questions and share information. var myGlobalVar = value; The second way is to assign it as a property to the global object, which in web browsers are the window object. When running in the browser, the global object is window . Take a look at this example:- Mar 18, 2019 The window property of a Window object points to the window object itself. Importing Global Variables from the It behaves like this code except that at the end, _gaq ends up as a global variable. Although I’ve simplified it hugely, this is in essence how the jQuery source works. Jan 12, 2017 defines a global variable for each ID in your HTML document. keys(window). In a web browser, The global variable foo was stored in the window object, like this: Jul 18, 2018 When declaring global variables in a web browser they are also properties of the global window object. When we say a variable is in the global scope, we mean that it is a property on the window object. JavaScript's strict mode, introduced in ECMAScript 5, is a way to opt in to a restricted variant of JavaScript, thereby implicitly opting-out of "sloppy mode". myObj. All browsers support the object window JavaScript uses. It represents an open window in a browser. How to watch variables in JavaScript by AbdulFattaah Popoola on April 17, 2015 November 1, 2017 We all have to track variables while debugging ; generally the easier it is to monitor changes, the faster bugs can be detected and fixed. Global functions are methods of the window object. Global variables. Jun 3, 2014 (function (window, document, undefined) { var name = 'Todd'; } is where the function is invoked, and we're passing in the window Object. calculateIt(); // 400 // This is an important point to remember. js and browser JavaScript differ when it comes to globals. It can be accessed from any function. This global Window object has a self-referential window property that can be  Jan 2, 2018 What is the correct way to define global variables in JavaScript - A global The best practice is to use it like the following with “window”: Oct 16, 2017 But, because JavaScript allows re-declaration of same variables, it can Using the global window object, we can access the global variable. window. js // So 'this' is assigned to the global object instead of to a newly created This is the default behaviour in not only JavaScript but some other languages as well. Mar 3, 2016 I want to keep javascript variable , lets call it var _myFilters values during Global variables are attached to the window object, and the window  Sep 12, 2014 //global variable globalName = "JavaScript Interop"; globalArray = globalArray = [ 1, defined in global scope (i. I find the "global vars are terrible" philosophy a bit funny since even jQuery and JavaScript loaders use a global variable. Jun 21, 2019 The global object provides variables and functions that are available In a browser it is named window , for Node. Using this Keyword. Variables (and functions) created within a given context exist as properties of that context’s VariableObject. Passing Yourself Global Variables. When resolving a variable, JavaScript starts at the innermost scope and searches outwards until it finds the variable/object/function it was looking for. It's a little weird, so let's see it. It represents the browser's window. In browser platform, `window` is a single global context object. Now that we're using this fancy self-executing function, we don't have access to " RepLogApp" anymore: Feb 18, 2019 In JavaScript, there's always a global object defined. let us see what output it actually gives you. I have a global variable I intend to alter from inside an AJAX callback but I haven't had much luck with it. global object of a JavaScript context is the browser window (the window object in JavaScript). myGlobalVar = value; The third way is to use it without defining it. That includes JavaScript built-ins, such as Array and environment-specific values, such as window. 1 with no keywords, 2 with var, 3 with let, and 4 with const. > "foo" in window false > typeof foo // does Variables in global scope can be accessed from everywhere in the application. log( . The global object in a webpage is the browser window. so you can create global variables aliases as parameters for your script: ;(function(window, $) { // your JS code })(window, jQuery) . modular code that doesn't accidentally leak variables into the global scope. JavaScript Global Variable. A local variable can only be used inside the function where it is defined. The name variable was declared with a const keyword, so its deletion is not successful: false is returned. I am inclined to say we should remove the name and length properties from the global declaration space as they are very likely to be used intentionally. Mar 27, 2018 JavaScript variable returns the value stored in the global JavaScript Say, that you're interested in the document object, click See Document Object link. That said, even in a tabbed browser, some properties and methods still apply to the overall window that contains the tab, such as resizeTo() and JS Window Object. A JavaScript global variable is declared outside the function or declared with window object. Inside of our self-executing function, we - of course - also have access to any global variables, like window or the $ jQuery variable. A global variable, window, representing the window in which the script is running, is exposed to JavaScript code. Global JavaScript objects, functions, and variables become part of the window object automatically. Feb 11, 2013 Instead of placing all of our code in the global window namespace, we could create an object that will contain all of our code and variables and  Mar 25, 2013 There are several ways that an object can become global. When a function does not have an owner object, the global object becomes the value of this keyword. There is an alternative in JavaScript because all globally scoped variables are appended to the window object array. " Finally, I'm using "global" in quotes because it's not really global. write. So 'this' is assigned to the global object instead of to a newly created object. The identical object in Node. Private members in JavaScript The global object in Node. This blog post explains how it works and when to use it. Since the Global context also has an Variable Object (more precisely, **the variable object for the global object is the global object itself) it also gets copied into the functions [[Scope]] property. " how do all global variables belong in the global object window when window is a global variable? Several tweets mentioned that in order to display an element in Chrome’s JavaScript console, you only have to type its ID. The term "global objects" (or standard built-in objects) here is not to be confused with the global object. self) or standalone (self). In web pages, the global object is window, so you can set and access global variables using the window. JavaScript always sets this to the window object within a simple function call  Jan 19, 2016 IIFEs can be used all over the place in typical JavaScript applications. It contains information related to your current browser window. It defines the window of the browser. All the variables declared in the global scope become the variable of Wrapping everything in a function which is then immediately invoked means all the variables within that function are bound to the local scope. In the other side, Node. js environment provides a global context as JavaScript,object,existence. The global object and window The ECMAScript specification uses the internal data structure environment to store variables. Files are just a way to get code into memory, where it generally lives until you navigate away. For example, when JavaScript code references the parseInt() function, it refers to the parseInt property of the global object. But, instead of relying on these global variables, you'll often see people pass those variables into the function. The lifetime of a JavaScript variable starts when it is declared. These are properties of the window object. ’ All global variables belong to the window object. Q&A for Work. The window object supports all global variables, functions and variables. Using the global window object, we can access the global variable. A Global Variables in HTML. Mar 22, 2009 $(document). The JavaScript global object associated with the context. Aug 16, 2013 A variable can be defined in either local or global scope, which function, this will default to the global context or window object in the browser. In a web page, global variables belong to the window object. Access Global Variables var foo = "foobar"; foo === window. g. Now hopefully we'll see this issue addressed in IE9, along with a faster JavaScript engine :). The primary global object is the System object. A list of all the reserved words in JavaScript are given in the following table. Every Global Scope. A global object is just an object, not a class. Nov 14, 2012 If you are familiar with the JavaScript environment in a browser, the global object is equivalent to the window object. . In most environments global variables are also part of what is often called the global object, in client side javaScfipt this is typically the window object but it can also be other objects as well such as when working with a web worker environment. If your code and variables are local in scope, it's easier to reason about things; only those parts of the code that can access the variable may have changed it. Object literal vs object constructor 55. May 6, 2005 It turns out that when a global variable is set, it's added to the window object! var myValue; function setValue() { myValue = "test"; } function  Mar 13, 2013 If _gaq was already a variable in the global scope - maybe you set it as because Javascript ignores the var statement in that case and works as if it was In the case that _gaq is a property of the window object - maybe you  Namespaces can be found in almost any serious JavaScript application. In short, each entry in the arguments object is a duplicate of each named argument. type ); // I'm a global variable. If you assign a value to a variable that has not been previously declared, it will The Global Object in Acrobat JavaScript – Samples . A window for a given document can be obtained using the document. log( window. Note how this and window seem to reference same object (if we can believe  JavaScript Built-in Browser Objects: navigator , window , screen , history , location Typically, global variables and function definitions are placed in HEAD  Feb 15, 2017 Scope is the accessibility of variables, functions, and objects in some particular part . In this post I will be writing about some things to be aware of when dealing with global The window property of a Window object points to the window object itself. Sep 13, 2017 In JavaScript for example, a global variable that can act as a root is the “window” object. foo; // Returns: true After defining a Global Variable foo, we can access its value directly from the window object, by using the variable name JavaScript Global Variable. e. In practice this means you should avoid creating global objects unless they are absolutely necessary. The end result is that, _gaq, which had a value and used to be a property of the window object, has now been erased, and replaced with the new value of _gaq (empty array). In a web browser, ‘window’ is the top-level object which represents the document, location, history and a few other useful properties and methods. Well, the window object comes to our rescue. In programming, text values are called text strings. Don't these statements mean that global and window variables are basically same? The global object holds variables that should be available everywhere. When it comes to variables attached to the window object, you never know where they have been, or who has touched them. and you'd like to access the main object from the outside, so you can use it. For example, the URL for the current page can be found in window. This is because the window object is the With JavaScript, the global scope is the complete JavaScript environment. Any Global Variables or Functions can be accessed as properties of the window object. Global variables are in fact properties of the global object. Example JavaScript Best Practices Previous Next Avoid global variables, avoid new, avoid ==, avoid eval() Avoid Global Variables. And use the syntax like Window Object. Before ES6, we used to declare variable using the var keyword where variables had global scope by default or in other words we can say the variables declared using the var keyword are available throughout the program and not just within a block. The global scope in JavaScript is all in memory. contentWindow); Object. JavaScript can handle many types of data, but for now, just think of numbers and strings. Here, global objects refer to objects in the global scope. When we set age equal to 21, we actually added a property called age to the global object. At the very end you can then expose all your methods by binding the jQuery object to the window, the global object. Therefore, you’re not prevented from accessing name properties on the global window object. If a variable is declared outside of any function, it sits in the global scope, which means it can be accessed anywhere in your code. They are truly beneficial if you wish to create easily readable structures that can be expanded to support deep nesting. JavaScript variables has two scopes: global and local. innerHeight – the window height in the browser. Global variables can be used (and changed) by all scripts in the page (and in the window). All global variables are properties and functions Invoking this in the global space will return the entire window object. Here Mudassar Ahmed Khan has explained how to persist JavaScript objects and variables across PostBacks or in other words Form Submissions in ASP. js is available in all modules, which differs slightly from JavaScript functionality. The design of JavaScript is not so sophisticated. js files that require modules, as well as create variables and use global console objects. Ok, so global variables become properties of Global object, but what happens . The jQuery library adds two global variables that are attached to the window object: jQuery and its alias $. Global variables defined with the var keyword belong to the window object: How and why to avoid global variables in JavaScript - global-variables-are-bad. Once again, this is a video focusing on the concept of JavaScript and explaining how we can create variables in 4 different ways. Part of the battle is console. JavaScript Reserved Words. It supports all browsers. It's very easy for us to make mistakes if we are not very careful when using JavaScript. They are instance variables of the window object. to note that all global variables are attached to the window object. With JavaScript, the global scope is the JavaScript environment. The window object is the Global Object in the Browser. If no such function exists, the variables will be created as global variables instead, thus . JavaScript variables can hold numbers like 100 and text values like "John Doe". Jan 26, 2010 Last week, I tweeted about a JavaScript quiz I came across on Dmitry First, all global variables are properties of window . js, or perhaps running in a web view of some sort on a mobile device), it may not. Accessing global variables of other pages. The scope specifies from where you can access a variable and whether you have access to the variable in that context. They cannot be used as JavaScript variables, functions, methods, loop labels, or any object names. In this tutorial, you will learn how to run Node. Hence, any variable created outside of a function or object, whether using the 'var' keyword or not, is appended to the global window namespace. Sep 29, 2013 In web browsers, window refers to an object that contains the global variables. In the first example, a is a local variable. With all the reusable JavaScript code that we write, there comes some times when we A global variable automatically becomes a part of the window object. Aug 31, 2015 JavaScript snippet to retrieve global variables from the page. Net. In the example below, the value of this keyword is the window object: In JavaScript, the global object is called ‘root. Even the document object (of the HTML DOM) is a property of the window object: Global variables are variables declared in the global scope. The Lifetime of JavaScript Variables. A closure is the combination of a function and the lexical environment within which that function was declared. What is the scope of variables in javascript? Do they have the same scope inside as opposed to outside a function? Or does it even matter? Also, where are the variables stored if they are defined // The “this” object in the setTimeout function used the global highValue and constantVal variables, because the reference to “this” in the setTimeout function refers to the global window object, not to the myObj object as we might expect. What is a Global Object in JavaScript - Objects in JavaScript are different from Global Object Using the new operator you cannot create global objects It comes into existence when the scripting engine is initialized After it is initialized the functions and constants are availabl Even if the let variable is defined as same as var variable globally, the let variable will not be added to the global window object. Jun 23, 2014 How to export namespaced objects into the global scope when using browserify. globalVar = "This is global!"; While it is possible to define a global variable by just omitting var (assuming there is no local variable of the Namespacing in JavaScript Global variables should be reserved for objects that have system-wide relevance and they should be named to avoid ambiguity and minimize the risk of naming collisions. The document object is a property of the window object. If you remember there is an IE bug with “var a = foo” only declaring a global for file scope. The global object has a universal name globalThis. Unlike simple global variables, object literals often also take into account tests for the existence of a variable by the same name, so the chances of collision occurring are significantly reduced. When learning JavaScript one of the basics is to understand how to use variables. If a constructor function is called without the 'new' keyword, it is invoked with the ordinary function invocation pattern. We often use `window` instance to get and set global variables. That means that any attributes assigned to the new object by the constructor function become global variables! If a constructor function is called without the 'new' keyword, it is invoked with the ordinary function invocation pattern. The key, as Raynos alluded to, is that it's set explicitly on the window object. global. This blog post explains a few more details. Jul 12, 2016 JavaScript Namespaces and Closures instead of Global Variables scope (i. In a browser thats window: var a = "hello"; //window is the global VariableObject window. In JavaScript, objects and functions are also variables. Window object represents the browser's window. Now Pixelstech, this page is to provide vistors information of the most updated technology information around the world. In a web browser, global variables are deleted when you close the browser window (or tab), but remain available to new pages loaded into the same window. Consequently, you can access global variables declared in one window or frame from another window or frame by specifying the window or frame name. global variables of your script are in fact properties of window : a JavaScript module could define a property called "window" inside of a class it  The properties of this object are the global variables of JavaScript programs. For example, create a global object named something like globals or app. In JavaScript, though, this is not the case and the variable i remains in scope . Local variables are deleted when the function is completed. JavaScript global System objects. Aug 10, 2009 First I made variables to be used in the global and local objects. With JavaScript, the global scope is the complete JavaScript environment. The window object is more than just JavaScript, it 's also the interface to the  Variables that contain built-in browser-related objects -- window, document, navigator, Variables defined inside a function are also global, assuming the var   Jan 31, 2013 In this post, we will learn JavaScript's variable scope and hoisting and all . All variables other than parameters and variables declared with the keyword var are global variables. Writing var a . add a rule to disallow id which is names from Element or Window object. Another way for creating a global variable is to use the window global object anywhere JavaScript looks down We don't actually add all the members of Window to the global namespace; name (and other globals) are just declared twice (once globally, once in the Window interface). All JavaScript code executes in some environment, most commonly carName , because in the browse the 'window' object the global object. window // In web pages, the window object is also a global object. Now that we know what the  Global variables and function names are an incredibly bad idea. Global variables should be used sparingly if at all. If you really need to use the global scope it is a good idea to namespace your variables so that they become properties of a global object. defaultView property. Intentional globals aside, leaking global variables is bad practice and a result of sloppy coding. The global object is the header of the scope chain and also means that all variables declared in the top-level JavaScript code will become properties of the global object. Variables declared within a JavaScript function, become LOCAL to the function. The reason is that functions in JavaScript form closures. This means: global variables of your script are in fact properties of window: Bypass XSS filters using JavaScript global variables. Strict mode will only prevent you from assigning values to variables that have yet to be declared. For more details see the article “Global JavaScript Object in Acrobat JavaScript” at . Not in the sense that you seem to be imagining. These concepts lend to some of MooTools got knocked for extending natives but also for placing objects in the global space, like Browser and $$. The whole HTML document is a window I'm creating a JavaScript library which must iterate through all global variables (fetching those whose names match a particular regexp). The global object can be used to create, read and change global variables. Understanding scope will make your code stand out, reduce errors and help you make powerful design patterns with However, because the code still works as expected, this is obviously not the case in JavaScript. What to do instead Javascript Global and Local Variables Into this post we are going to discuss difference between how to declare javascript global variable and javascript local variable and its scope we are going to discuss how can we declare global variable and local varible into Javascript with example. Though the concept of scope is not that easy to understand for many new developers, I will try my best to explain them to you in the simplest scope. The global context’s VariableObject is the global object. Jul 10, 2015 Learn how to determine what "this" in JavaScript points with four concrete rules, paired with multiple Otherwise, return the global object, ie: window . Global variables within a script appear as fields or subscripts in the global object —you  These are properties of the window object. protect those from being overwritten by using an object literal: Hello, I've got a `data` JSON object defined on `window` from a to define such such a global interface augmentation in a globals. The alert method is technically a property of window object, but since all window properties are automatically global variables, we can use alert as a global variable instead of as a property of window - meaning you can directly use alert() instead of window. The window object is also known as Browser Object Model (BOM). Numbers are written without quotes. As I said, variables declared without the var keyword attach themselves One of the biggest issues that you can run into with writing JavaScript is abusing the shared global namespace, and overwriting the variables of an unrelated script. Theoretically -- and this is the case for most major browsers (new versions of Firefox, Opera and wekbit) -- using a for-in loop on the window object should do the trick, because window is the global object, containing all global variables. This environment consists of any local variables that were in-scope at the time It is far better to pass variables as arguments to functions than rely on globals. Teams. Closures A better example of how the closure side of things works, can be seen when returning a function reference – a more practical usage. In the global scope context is always the Window object. The proper way is to use window object. The window object represents an open window in a browser. ready(function() { panelNewResource that the variables will l be created at global scope on the window object (ie. If a document contain frames (<iframe> tags), the browser creates one window object for the HTML document, and one additional window object for each frame. So, typing window. The var keyword. Each page has its own Javascript environment with its own global variables. x is a string and y is an object. The window object is the global object that represents the browser window. Feb 20, 2014 Realizing that global variables live under your window object should help you understand why you can access a global variable from anywhere  Mar 1, 2010 Internet Explorer: Global Variables, and Stack Overflows This tells us that it has something to do with the window “host” object, . console. But JavaScript has answer to this problem. Let’s see the simple example of global variable in JavaScript. That’s it! All of the other internal variables declared don’t exist outside of that library – no where to be found within the window object. That means that any attributes assigned to the new object by the constructor function become global variables! window object in JS represent the current window open in your browser. The Window Object. Yes, if you create a var at the top level (global level), it would create a property on the global object — in the case of a browser, this is likely to be the window object. . Thus, the following expressions all return the same window object: window. If you’re simply using a variable then strict mode doesn’t protect you. In the last example, a is a global variable. var iframeKeys = Object. Strict mode isn't just a subset: it intentionally has different semantics from normal code. JavaScript and object oriented programming 54. number, string or array (see data types). I've tried accessing it through the window object but when I console log the variable If you want to access the global object in a cross-platform manner, you can use a pattern such as the following: (function (glob) {// glob points to global object}(typeof window!== 'undefined'? window: global)); From now on, I use window to refer to the global object, but in cross-platform code, you should use the preceding pattern and glob Questions: How can I declare a global variable in JavaScript? Answers: If you have to generate global variables in production code (which should be avoided) always declare them explicitly: window. Understanding Scope and Context in JavaScript August 16, 2013 JavaScript JavaScript’s implementation of scope and context is a unique feature of the language, in part because it is so flexible. The first way is to declare the variable outside of any function. See the example below - var varVariable = “this is a var variable”; let letVariable = “this is a let variable”; Say, here we have two variables declared. There are three ways to define a global variable in Javascript. May 10, 2017 This global me variable can also be used in a function, like this: . Variables are containers for values of all possible types, e. window object for browser). object. This chapter documents all of JavaScript's standard, built-in objects, including their methods and properties. Your global variables (or functions) can overwrite window variables (or functions). alert(). javascript window object global variables

cd, kf, qa, ul, lj, o5, fx, lj, a8, ge, sb, gi, z8, w3, oy, qy, ly, t7, rt, jv, tr, kz, q9, 5v, go, in, pq, nm, zt, ht, k9,